Reference management

When writing a report, essay or other academic text, you should always refer, refer to your sources in a standardized way.

The main arguments for this are:

It should be clear what basis you have for your interpretations and claims. It should clearly state what is your own conclusions and thoughts and what you have downloaded from others. It should be easy to find your way back to the source if you want to know more or check your data. If you're not referencing correctly, you risk being suspected of plagiarism, ie that you present others' results, conclusions or ideas as if they were your own. Plagiarism is cheating, which the University of Borås takes seriously. Anyone who gets caught with plagiarism risk getting a warning or at worst, be suspended from the program. Read more in the Anti - Plagiarism Guide.

Different styles:

There are essentially three types of styles for writing references - footnotes, numerical and author-year. Which style you use depends mainly on what discipline you belong and publishes your needs. Common to the different styles is that the inside of the text is a concise reference, either a number, footnote or a parenthesis, indicating the source of information is derived from. This reference points to a bibliographic reference found in the bibliography at the end of the text. The reference in the bibliography is more comprehensive than the reference in the text, and the reader can safely identify the alleged source.

They are many variations on the three main styles, many journals have such our own version. Are you going to publish an article in a journal, you must follow the style of the magazine provides. These data are available in the journal or on the journal's website.


The text stated the source in a footnote. A small siffernot in the text shows the footnote. The source list is alphabetical by author or other main ideas (eg, title). If you need to add an explanatory text in a footnote mixed it with footnotes indicating sources.

Examples of Style: Oxford


Each source is indicated by a number in the text. The sources are numbered sequentially as they are introduced in the text, and then retained the same figure throughout the work. In the list of references is arranged in numerical order.

Examples of style: Vancouver

Author - years

In text reference source specified by the author's last name and year of publication in parentheses. The source list is alphabetical by author or other main ideas (eg, title).

Examples of styles: Harvard, APA