Fair and legally certain examinations

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Requirements regarding exams

It should be clear what is to be assessed in the exam and with what criteria the teacher will define the grades earned.

Where grading criteria are binding, they must be specified in the course syllabus.

Mandatory attendance may not be the only criterion for passing.

Forms of examination

The examiner decides how tests and other examinations are to be designed based on the forms of examination formally decided upon and communicated via the course syllabus. The examination must be designed in such a way that each individual's performance in relation to the defined learning outcomes can be assessed, including in cases of group work.

The examiner determines the point categories for examinations in which grading is done using points.
The same grading scales must be used for regular examinations as for re-examinations, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

The examiner decides which aids may be used in an examination and students must be informed of these in an appropriate manner.

Exam obstacles

If a student considers that the university has caused an obstacle to the completion of the examination, the student must notify the university. If, after investigation, the university finds that the university's actions have led to a student’s not being able to complete the examination, the student must be offered a new examination opportunity as soon as possible.

If a student feels that they are not able to take part in an examination due to special reasons (e.g. sudden illness), the student may normally wait until the next re-examination occasion to take the examination.

Coded exams

If the form of the examination allows it, students' personal data must be hidden from the examining teacher when assessing the examination.

Written examinations held on campus must always be coded.

However, due to confidentiality rules, the examining teacher must be given the names of the test takers before a grading decision is made.


Grades must be decided by a teacher specially appointed by the university: an examiner. Other teachers than the one appointed as formal examiner may participate in examinations. The grading decision must state who participated in the decision other than the examiner. Normally, for internships and degree projects, supervisors and examiners must not be the same person.

A student has the right to change examiners for the next examination if two examinations have been completed and failed by the same examiner and there are no special reasons not to grant such a change. As the right to compulsory student placement/internship is limited to two occasions, a change of examiner may be requested after one occasion.

Requests for a change of examiner are to be made to the university. Approved decisions to change the examiner only apply to the next examination occasion. The same applies in the case of a failing grade for a degree project.

Examination language

The university is not obliged to offer examinations in a language other than the language specified for the course.

If a course is to be taught in a language other than Swedish, this must be specified in the syllabus.

Legally secure identification

The examiner must be able to identify that the correct student has taken the examination, regardless of the type of examination.

Timing of examinations and equal treatment

Exams are to, if possible, take place during regular study times.

A student may apply to the university for exemption from a compulsory educational component on the grounds of ethical or religious convictions.

Students with a long-term disability documented by the university have the opportunity to apply to the university for an adapted examination. In case of approval, the university decides which support measures will be used.


As a general rule, students have the right to complete unlimited re-examinations of a course so long as the course is given. According to Chapter 6, Section 21 of the Higher Education Ordinance, it is possible to limit the number of exam occasions for a course as long as the student is given at least five (5) exams occasions per course. In addition to what is regulated in Chapter 6. 21§ of the Higher Education Ordinance, the general rule at the university is that at least three (3) of these opportunities are to be given within the course of one year, unless specifically decided otherwise. In the case of compulsory placements/internships, students are entitled to two placement/internship occasions. This also applies to courses that are discontinued.

It is therefore possible to limit the number of re-examination or placement/internship opportunities, but only in cases where an unlimited right would lead to an unreasonable waste of resources for the university. If the exam occasions are limited, this must be stated in the syllabus. This also applies in cases where it is deemed necessary to limit the number of occasions an exam is given within one year.

Registration for an exam does not count as a “used” examination occasion if the student does not participate in the examination. However, this does not automatically mean that the student has the same number of examination opportunities left, but rather that they can apply to the university for an additional opportunity.

Re-take examination

The opportunity re-take an examination should normally be offered within eight weeks of the date of the first examination. At the time of the regular exam occasion, at the latest, students must be informed as to when a new exam occasion will be.

The form of exam may differ between exam occasions, but the requirement that the re-take exam be assessed based on the same requirements must be met.

For courses that have changed, the re-examination should be based on the current syllabus at the time of the re-examination. If a course is discontinued, the student is to have the opportunity to re-take the exam according to the syllabus in force at the time of admission.

At least once per academic year, preferably in August, students are to be given the opportunity to carry out re-take exams on all courses that have been given and which the student has not passed during the previous academic year/term.

When an exam is considered to have taken place

Students who have received the examination tasks and participated in the examination must be assessed and the grade decision must be registered in Ladok. In the case of examinations with digital aids, the examination is considered to have begun when the student has opened up the relevant examination task, after which the student cannot withdraw the examination task in order to avoid marking.

There may be occasions in examinations where a student is close to a passing grade. An examiner may then decide that the student concerned may carry out supplementary tasks instead of a re-take exam, but only on condition that this is supported by the syllabus concerned.

Correction time and notification of grading decisions

As a general rule, the maximum time for correcting exams is 15 working days after the examination date. The time is between the day of the examination and the day when the grading decisions are communicated to the student in Ladok, so time for administration is included.

Exams in another place/country

In the case of an exam in another place/country, the same rules apply as to exams that take place at the University of Borås. In order for the examination to be carried out elsewhere, it must be ensured that guidelines will be complied with and that the examination will maintain the same conditions as a regular exam regarding fair and legally certain exams. An additional condition for exams carried out elsewhere is that it takes place on the same date and time as the regular exam given at the University of Borås premises.

In the event that the exam takes place elsewhere, it must also be possible to post the exam in a way that meets the requirement of fairness and legal certainty. If the university finds that this is not the case, taking exam elsewhere cannot be granted.

Guidelines regarding practical implementation can be found in "Routines - Examination in another place/country" (Reg. no. 673-08-101).

Submission of exam

The form prescribed by the examiner regarding the form of submission and review of exams/submissions must be followed.

Review of exam results

The examiner is not obliged to give reasons for a grading decision when it is made. However, a justification must, if possible, be provided afterwards, if the student so requests and it is necessary for the student to be able to exercise their rights (Chapter 1, Section 14 of the Higher Education Ordinance).

In the case of a decision on general feedback, this opportunity must be offered at least 10 working days before the re-take examination occasion.

Otherwise, the rules of Section 32 of the Administrative Procedure Act apply.

Grading decisions

A grading decision can only be made by a single examiner. However, there are no formal obstacles to several examiners’ marking different students at the same examination, but it is important to ensure that equal cases are treated equally.

Changes to grading decisions

A student who wishes to have a grade reconsidered must justify what they consider to be incorrect assessment in relation to the course objectives in the syllabus.
The examiner will review the grade decision as soon as possible after the student's request.

Culling and preservation

The university’s student-related documents are preserved or culled in accordance with the Archives Act (1990:782) and the Swedish National Archives' Constitutional Collection (RA-FS 2008:3). How the university applies the regulations is regulated in information management plans.

Disciplinary offences

Any well-founded suspicion of a disciplinary offence is to be promptly reported to the Vice-Chancellor for further investigation.

Guidelines for the process can be found in the Rules of Procedure for Disciplinary Matters at the University of Borås (Reg. no. 406-17).


Oral examination

Oral examinations must be documented in some way. The Faculty concerned is responsible for ensuring that the necessary documentation is available to enable it to consider any request for a review of a grading decision.

VFU/student placements/internships

The main rule is that grades are awarded after the placement/internship has been completed; if a student interrupts their placement/internship prematurely, the main rule is that a grade is not awarded.

It is always the examiner who makes the grading decision. The supervisor's role is to make recommendations based on the student's performance in the placement/internship.

Group examination

Group examinations must be designed in such a way that it is possible to assess the performance of each individual student. Students should be given clear information about the assessment criteria for individual assessment.

Distance learning

In cases in which distance learning students must be physically present for examinations or other compulsory components, this should be stated in the syllabus for the course or programme. Students should be clearly informed about attendance requirements in cases of distance education.

Degree projects (academic papers)

Usually, an examiner does not require very extensive revisions of a student's thesis once a supervisor has given the go-ahead for the student to take their thesis to the next stage of the process. This should not be interpreted as a clear signal for a passing grade; it is always the examiner alone who makes the final decision on the grade.

Students completing their degree project are entitled to supervision during the course.

If necessary, a decision on additional supervision time can be taken by the decision-maker concerned after consultation with the course coordinator.

If a student does not complete the degree project during the course, it is customary to offer supervision, within reasonable limits, until it is completed.

Examination with digital aids

Handling students' personal data when using digital tools is permitted if it is necessary for examination. As a general rule, it is permissible to conduct examinations that are not recorded and do not include elements of monitoring or checking students. This also applies when students participate via audio and video.

Recording is allowed in order to obtain the necessary documentation to support the examination and/or assessment of compulsory components.

Real-time streaming is allowed if there is specified purpose defined beforehand and it is actually an effective tool to achieve the purpose (e.g. to prevent opportunities for cheating).

In case of technical problems that lead to the student’s not being able to complete the examination, it may be investigated whether the student or the university is responsible for the error and whether the student should be offered a new examination session or have to wait until the next re-take exam session.

If the guidelines are not followed

Students who believe that the guidelines for fair and legally certain examination are not being followed can turn to the responsible teacher or equivalent for help. The student can also contact the Student Union at the university directly.

The student also always has the right to submit a formal complaint directly to the university, which will then be investigated formally.